Surface combatants are equipped with main gun batteries. These Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) such as Gatling guns are fast, short-range weapons primarily intended to target incoming missiles, and secondary smaller vessels and very careless hostile aircraft.
The primary defense for ships and land forces against aircraft, are surface-to-air missiles (SAM). These weapons are fitted to land installations and surface ships to deny airspace to enemy aircraft and shooting down threats. Air-to-air missiles (AAM) are the offensive weapons that fighter aircraft uses to engage enemy aircraft. Though only at range.
Anti-ship missiles (ASM, AShM, ASuM), most commonly cruise missiles, are the game’s primary weapons against enemy ships. Surface combatants, some submarines and aircraft are equipped with a set number of antiship cruise missiles.
Land attack missiles can attack both land and surface (sea) targets. They are best used against more heavily defended land-based targets, than surface ships. As a good number of these weapons are anti-radar weapons, they also possess an increased chance of hitting and damaging radar installations.
Torpedoes are one of the primary weapons of submarines, and effectively the only weapon against submarines. There three types of torpedo modeled in the game: Heavyweight torpedoes are torpedoes carried by submarines, for use primarily against surface targets. Lightweight torpedoes are anti-submarine weapons, launched from surface vessels or (most frequently) aircraft. Anti-submarine rockets (AsRoc) are ship-based weapons used to target submarines. There is little effective defense, except running away at maximum speed.
Modern bombs are primarily used against land targets. They are typically far more sophisticated, and have a greater range and accuracy than their free-falling predecessors. Aircraft still need to get within close range of their targets, where they are vulnerable to counter-attack.